2017 4 (16)

December 31, 2017

 

SUMMARIES

 

RELEVANT HERITAGEЕ

Savinkin Alexander Evgenievich

"THE SACRED GLORY OF RUSSIA’S EVER VICTORIOUS WEAPONRY... "

A science to win as exemplified by General-Field Marshal Mikhail I. Kutuzov’s principles and rules(for the 205th anniversary of the Victory in the Patriotic War of 1812)

This historical and philosophical feature article by the editor of the Russian Military Collection A. E. Savinkin dwells on milestones of the biography and the rules of military art of the winner of Napoleon, the great general of Russia, Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov. Particular attention is paid to Kutuzov's science to win, to the strategic ideas and thoughts of the military classic. The features and principles of M. I. Kutuzov's activity were revealed during the campaign of 1805, at the final stage of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 and during the Patriotic War of 1812. This paper reveals the significance of Kutuzov’s ideas and views for nowadays.

Keywords:

Patriotic War of 1812; M.I. Kutuzov; Napoleon; military art; strategy; the science of winning; small war; the Russian army; morale. 

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Belozerov Vasily Klavdievich

Patriotic war as a Russian political phenomenon 

This article reflects the political sense put into the “Patriotic war” concept in Russia. It provides the author's explanation of why the wars of 1812 and 1941-1945 became Patriotic ones for Russian people. It outlines the fact that these wars were waged against coalitions of Western powers. This study proves that struggling for the Fatherland is still taking place in contemporary conditions with a focus on the confrontation of values.

Keywords:

Russia; Fatherland; Patriotic war; national war; traditions; identity; values.

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Soloviev Alexey Vasilievich

The year 1812: the prototype of future wars 

This study of Russia’s war history provides rich material for creative analysis of many aspects of modern war activities. It focuses on the links between the experience of the Patriotic War of 1812 and modern practice of warfare. This research shows that many of the events of the war of Russia against the army of the invaders in early 19th century, came as prototypes for the modern warfare craft. On this basis, the author proves the need for studying the experience of the past wars for understanding of the dialectical correlation between the warfare of the past and present. The events of the War of 1812 are studied by Russian historians and foreign experts, military leaders and politicians which gives an opportunity for more comprehensive and in-depth assessment of the events that had a huge military and political significance, and contributes to the revival of Russia as the subject of military and political relations in the modern world.

Keywords:

policy; philosophy of war; Patriotic War; military campaign; demographic potential; partisan movement; morale; civilization; information war; historiography; uchroniya.
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DEFENSE AND SECURITY

PAGES OF HISTORY

"ENTIRE RUSSIA HAS ITS GROUNDS TO COMMEMORATE THE DAY…!"

An interview with the doctor of historical sciences, Professor I.A. Shein on the problems of studying the Patriotic War of 1812

205 years ago on the night of June 12 (24) June Napoleon’s forces, still called the Great Army, proceeded to cross the border Niemen river. Napoleonic invasion of Russia began, which we called the Patriotic War of 1812. Just in six months on December 25, 1812 (January 6, 1813), the Russian emperor Alexander I manifesto stated that "there is already no single enemy on the face of our land." The attempt to conquer Russia saw an inglorious outcome for the united armies of Europe under the command of once invincible Napoleon. At the invitation of the editorial staff of the Military Academic Journal, one of the leading Russian historians touches upon the topical issues related to the study of the Patriotic War of 1812.

Keywords:

history; historiography; researchers; concept; Patriotic War of 1812; Alexander I; Napoleon; M.I. Kutuzov; I.V. Stalin; falsification; patriotic conviction.

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Prokhorovskaya Anastasia Igorevna

Russian historiography on the role of Emperor Alexander I in the War of 1812 (1917–2017) 

In this article the author attempts to broadly examine the development of national historiography from 1917 until the present time on the role of Emperor Alexander I in the War of 1812. For a centenary assessments dominating Russia’s historiography on the political and military activities of the Russian Emperor were repeatedly subjected to transformations and sometimes had opposite estimates. Thus, conducting a historiographical analysis of the literature available on the subject, meets the need for an objective coverage of the role of Emperor Alexander I in the fight against the aggression of Napoleon’s France in 1812.

Keywords:

historiography; Napoleonic wars; Patriotic War of 1812; emperor; Alexander I; Napoleon; M.I. Kutuzov; military-political activity; victory.

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Babakina Elena Igorevna

Today’s development of historiography on Napoleon’s role in the War of 1812 

This study analyzes contemporary scientific achievements of Russian historiography dedicated to Napoleon’s role in the War of 1812. Since the collapse of the USSR, assessments of Napoleon and his place in the Patriotic War of 1812, dominating Russia’s national science, were repeatedly adjusted, sometimes radically changing the established concepts.

Keywords:

historiography; Napoleonic wars; Patriotic War of 1812; the French Emperor; Napoleon Bonaparte; military-political activity; commander.

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Paraskevov Valery Sergeevich, Saksonov Oleg Victorovich 

"Nivelle’s slaughter”: the Allied forces’ tragedy on the Western Front of the First World War 

This article dwells on the dramatic events of one of the most significant and senseless battles of the First World War – the offensive of the allied Anglo-French troops on the Western Front in the spring of 1917. The commander of the French army, General Nivelle, was confident that this battle would decide the outcome of the war, but for the Anglo- French troops it turned into a tragedy. The article deals with the specifics of the preparation and conduct of the operation, the miscalculations of the command and reasons for its failure. The authors conclude that the unsuccessful operation had large-scale political and psychological consequences for the armies and peoples of the Entente allies.

Keywords:

World War I; Entente; France; Germany; the Western Front; General Nivelle; General Joffre; offensive; Nivelle’s Operation. 

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Yastremsky Anatoly Michailovich

The Role of the Bolshevik Party in a turning point of the world’s history (October 1917) 

This research covers the most significant event of the 20th century – the Great October Socialist Revolution. Studying this historic event in 100 years provides certain results and assessments. Based on a considerable number of historical documents of that period, the author attempted to re-comprehend the revolutionary events of 1917. Social evolution is regarded as the most reasonable way of development, while revolutionary upheavals, as a rule, lead to human casualties and broken fates, this research concludes. The author believes that revolutionary experience must be studied and learned from to avert similar tragedies in Russia’s future.

Keywords:

Russia; revolution; power; tsarism; the Interim Government; the Bolsheviks; proletariat; peasantry; bourgeoisie. 
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Rubtsov Yury Viсtorovich

The muses were not silent when the cannons were heard: cultural ties of the USSR with the allies during the World War II 

This article highlights the course of cultural cooperation established after the Nazi Germany invasion of the USSR among cultural, information and propaganda organizations of the Soviet Union, on the one hand, and the United States and the Great Britain, on the other hand. It reflects the contribution of the greatest activists of culture to the establishment of mutual understanding between the peoples of the allied powers. It reveals the fundamental geopolitical and ideological contradictions that existed among the members of the anti-Hitler coalition. Due to these reasons the scope and depth of cultural exchange was limited and reduced to a minimum at the end of the war.

Keywords:

World War II; anti-Hitler coalition; USSR; USA; the United Kingdom; Soviet information bureau; VOKS; cultural exchange; second front; propaganda; confrontation.
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SECURITY CHALLENGES

 “CONFRONTATION MAKES NO SENSE, INSTEAD WE SHOULD STRIVE FOR PEACE…”

An interview with Doctor of Military Sciences, Professor Army General Vladimir Nikolaevich Lobov 

In the global world the higher military leadership of the country has to increasingly assume diplomatic functions, as is clearly shown by the activities of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, Army General S.G. Shoigu and the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the First Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, V.V. Gerasimov. At the invitation of the editorial board of the magazine our permanent author and a well-known military leader Army General V.N. Lobov shared his experience in the late 1980s – early 1990s.

Keywords:

military policy; diplomacy; diplomat; conversation; General base; NATO; security.
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Stepanova Irina Vladimirovna

Trump’s administration foreign policies(on the materials of “Foreign Affairs” journal) 

This article overviews forecasts by some foreign political scientists on the foreign policy course of Donald Trump’s presidential office regarding the world order in general, and also Russia and its closest neighbors of China and North Korea in particular. It sets forth views by an array of foreign analysts on the goals facing the new administration, and results to be achieved. It discusses possible scenarios for the development of events if president Donald Trump fulfills his election promises.

Keywords:

US administration; president Donald Trump; geopolitics; foreign policy; world order; global security; world leadership; national interests; Russia; China; North Korea; nuclear programs.
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MILITARY PERSONNEL

MILITARY EDUCATION

Kurdyuk Alexander Anatolyevich

Military field development and specialists training for the Russian army during World War I 

This article examines measures taken by the highest state and military leadership of the country in order to resolve issues relating to manning of the Russian army during the First World War, which were determined by the development of the military field. It portrays the role of military and officer schools in technical specialists training for communication (telephone, telegraph, radio communication) and railway, automobile, aeronautical and aviation units, as well as training of machine gunners for infantry battalions and regiments.

Keywords:

World War I; personnel; officer; engineering corps; aviation; officer's school; military school; training of specialists.
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Ivanov Vladimir Petrovich

The first educational and correctional educational establishment of the Russian Empire military department 

This paper discusses the formation of the correctional military educational institution in Volsk of Saratov Province in the late 19th century. It dwells on the causes of such educational institutions, the conditions for the transfer of pupils from other military educational institutions, the content, forms and methods of educational activity of pedagogical staff. It portrays the evaluation of the educational-correctional military educational institutions in Russia and abroad.

Keywords:

the main department of military educational institutions (GUVUZ); military reform; military professional gymnasium; Volsk; educational and correctional educational institution; educator; pupil.

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EDUCATIONAL WORK

Ozerov Alexander Alexeevich 

The meaning of a soldier’s life and defense of the Fatherland 

This article dwells on the issues of the meaning of a serviceman’s life and defense of the Fatherland. This topic is considered within the social philosophy in the process of analyzing various aspects of a serviceman’s life-purpose contradictions and content within conditions of searching and forging a national idea, creating and strengthening the ideological basis of patriotic education.

Keywords:

Fatherland; Armed forces; Russian army; serviceman; meaning of life; patriotic education; development strategy.
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Ishimskaya Elena Viacheslavovna

National and military-patriotic aspects of I.A. Ilyin’s philosophy 

This article covers an analysis of the spiritual and religious concept of I.A. Ilyin, whose views merit special attention today. The author attempts to reflect on specifics of his philosophical method and to present the philosopher's substantiation of the Russian national idea, spiritual limits of the Motherland and patriotism, the objectivity of the army and military service, moral contradictions of war. It is shown that Orthodoxy is the main source of Russia’s national spirit. Ilyin's philosophy is deeply patriotic and represents a special humanistic value for professional defenders of the Fatherland, the author concludes.

Keywords:

I.A. Ilyin; philosophy; concept; spirituality; Russian national idea; patriotism; nationalism; Orthodoxy; statehood; war; army; military service.
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Gubenko Natalya Nikolaevna

On socio-psychological mechanism shaping national self-identification of the individual  

This article reveals the content of the pedagogical process of the formation of the national self-identity of the individual. The author proceeds from the fact that it must be built on the foundation of basic national values, oriented towards the national idea and national culture. It is shown that it is expedient to implement the pedagogical influence in the process of personality formation through the emotional-value, cognitive and regulatory-activity components.

Keywords:

personality; upbringing; self-identification; national values; a family; Motherland; domestic culture. 
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SCIENTIFIC WORK

Savin Alexander Anatolyevich

To the issue of aims and scope of postgraduate military course training 

This research analyzes the experience of implementing educational programs of postgraduate and military postgraduate studies as a third level of higher education. It singles out approaches to training of military postgraduates as part of the military higher educational institutions. This paper reveals the genesis of targets for military postgraduates training set out in the normative documents, as well as the specifics of the scope of educational programs. It provides a conclusion on the conceptual incompleteness of the current model of military postgraduate studies and emphasizes the need for its further improvement.

Keywords:

education; postgraduate studies; military postgraduate studies; training; Federal State Educational Standard of the Armed Forces (FSES of the AF); educational program; competence; thesis; final state attestation; PhD qualification exams.
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Kaftan Vitaly Viсtorovich, Kaftan Viсtor Vitalievich

The specifics of social and humanitarian knowledge of reality 

This paper describes the features of the social and human dimension of scientific knowledge. The author specifies the criteria for distinguishing between social and humanitarian knowledge from other scientific practices. This specific type of knowledge, which focuses on the study of man is shown in the article. Man is understood not as a simple sum of its individual sides, as well as a holistic, multifaceted phenomenon – the "measure of all things".

Keywords:

social and humanitarian knowledge; science of knowledge; humanitarian sciences; the science of the spirit; philosophy; values; text; language; discourse.
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Looshnikov Victor Pavlovich

Motivational willingness of servicemen for military service: problems of sociological research 

This article analyzes the essence, content, structure of levels and criteria of motivational willingness of servicemen for professional military activity. The author reveals the main problems and contradictions in the formation and strengthening of the motivational willingness of servicemen, who need sociological comprehension and practical solutions contributing to the combat capability and combat readiness of troops (forces).

Keywords:

military service; serviceman; professional military activity; motivation; value installations; contradictions; criteria. 
[pdf]

Shogoreva Elena Yuryevna

The questionnaire of officers’ self-actualization diagnostics in the system paradigm 

This article systematic approach for creation and testing of diagnostic tools aimed at the study of self-realization officers. The author has studied and described the primary psychometric characteristics of the developed methodology (internal validity, reliability, method of splitting, standardization and normative data for a sample). The results of the psychometric test demonstrate the reliability and validity of the technique. Factual analysis has made it possible to identify groups of claims, exposing dominant needs to understand the conditions for the acceptance of the military profession as a way of self-realization. The prospects of the use of the proposed questionnaire are given.

Keywords:

officer; self-realization; system paradigm; questionnaire; diagnostics.
[pdf]

 

SCIENTIFIC LIFE

SCIENTIFIC FORUM

World War I and the Revolutions of 1917

At the initiative of the Military University leadership on October 17, 2017 the Central Museum of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation hosted an international round table discussion "World War I and the Revolutions of 1917" and held the presentation of the fundamental work "World War I of 1914-1918". Representatives of a number of Russian academic and military scientific centers, state and departmental archives of the Russian Federation, the Secretariat of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS member states and the armed forces of the Republic of Belarus took part in the round table meeting.

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BOOKSHELF

A fundamental scientific work on the Great War

In August 2017, "Kuchkovo Pole" publishing house released the final sixth volume of a large-scale historical project – the six-volume fundamental work titled "The First World War of 1914-1918". This paper was published in three thousand copies, each volume boasts 65 author's sheets. Undoubtedly, this is a remarkable event in military-historical science. Тhe volume, breadth, comprehensiveness and depth of the analysis of the events of World War I and its subsequent impact on the world’s evolution and, especially, the war’s effect on domestic history over the past century make the scientific work unique both among Soviet and contemporary Russian works of history. 

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A way to Berlin was paved from the walls of “the unbroken city on the Volga River”

On November 28, 2017, as part of the events dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Stalingrad, the Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation hosted a presentation of the largest research project of recent years – the fundamental multivolume work "The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945" and the historical- documentary appendix to it – thematic collections of archival documents and materials.

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“Patriotism is yet a must…”

The issue of patriotic education of young people has always been and remains a relevant challenge. The book "One ought to be both a patriot and a citizen..." by V.I. Marchenkov and A.T. Stepanishev provides an invaluable help for teachers of history, social studies, literature, class leaders of secondary schools for teaching and upbringing schoolchildren’s love for the Motherland and its historical past; shaping their perception of Russia as a multinational Fatherland and a common home; educating morally and physically healthy citizens able to defend the Fatherland.

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The philosophy of spirit and duty(Philosophy and Religious Studies Department of the Military University – 90 years)

Philosophy is rightfully called the "mother" of all sciences. At the same time, philosophy is a science that one does not touch with hands. Indeed, by no means everyone is able to put philosophical aspects into practice. Specialists of the Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies of the Military University have been investigating the influence of the laws of philosophy on the life of society, mainly its military part since 1927. Over the period the Department has turned into both a powerful center aimed to shape the worldview of "engineers of human souls" – officers of educational structures and became the forge of military-philosophical personnel.

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An epitome of serving the Fatherland(to S.A. Tushkevich’s centenary) 

The decisive role in the process of patriotic education of citizens of a country belongs to devotees, personalities of a bright and creative nature. Among such legendary people a special place belongs to the participant of the Great Patriotic War and the outstanding Russian scientist S.A. Tyushkevich, whose centenary will be celebrated on December 25, 2017.

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