2018 4 (20) Summaries

December 31, 2018

 

SUMMARIES

 

REMEMBER THE WAR

World War I (1914–1918)

KNOW TO REMEMBER

Materials of the round-table discussions dedicated to the centenary of World War I

Upon the initiative of the “Military Academic Journal” editorial team, on the 12th of November the Military University held round table discussions on a range of issues related to World War I. The event coincided with the centenary of armed conflict unprecedented both in terms of its dimension and consequences. The round table meeting was moderated by editor-in-chief of the “Military Academic Journal” Alexander Kurdyuk and the leading research worker of the Research Centre (of the fundamental war-historical problems) of the Military University of the Russian Federation Defense Ministry Anatoly Sokolov.

Keywords: round table; World War I; Great War; army; heroism; victory; historical memory.

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Filippovykh Dmitry Nikolaevich

The Great War: specifics of the world conflict

This article deals with the main features of World War I, represented by the author in a concentrated form. Specifics of the war makes it possible to establish cause-and-effect relations between the geopolitical aspirations of the leading states and their implementation in the course of a world armed conflict. The facts and judgments given in the study provide readers with an opportunity to reasonably judge the nature and consequences of world wars, their catastrophic impact on the fate of human civilization.

Keywords: World War I; world conflict; the opposing coalitions; features; mass character; mobilization; warfare; military art; casualties; armament; material costs; crisis.

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Ilievsky Nikolay Vyacheslavovich

“Wars are cursed by mothers”: on military imprisonment and World War I casualties

This article deals with the problems of the “humanitarian dimension” of World War I, analyzes the issues of military captivity, military losses, victims of the civilian population of the Entente States and the Fourth Alliance, and delivers an array of factual data. It is shown that compared to all previous wars the destructiveness of the armed conflict increased many-fold due to improvement of military weapons and equipment. Humanity has paid a terrible price for the self-defeating massacre of the beginning of the 20th century.

Keywords: World War I; the Entente; Fourth Alliance; humanitarian consequences of war; military casualties; military prisoner; civilian population; victims.

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Sedov Gennady Georgievich, Shein Igor Alexandrovich 

The development of Russia’s Army motorized troops during World War I: historical experience and lessons

This article focuses on the genesis and development of the Russian Army motor transport troops during the World War I. It analyzes specific features of the organizational and staff structure development, creation of the command structure, automotive supply and commanders, drivers, and technical personnel training. Special attention is paid to the automotive vehicles deployment issues in the command and control, service and medical support system as well as an automotive combat unit. The analysis of a wide variety of sources let the authors to generalize the historical experience and to draw historical lessons that are useful for modern motor transport troops development.

Keywords: World War I; Russian Armed Forces; equipment; vehicle; military-automotive matters; motor transport company; auto workshop; driver; crew; command and control; supply; automotive troops.

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War in Afghanistan (1979–1989)

Samorodov Dmitry Petrovich

Soviet historiography of the War in Afghanistan: pre-scientific period

<!-- @page { size: 21cm 29.7cm; margin: 2cm } P { margin-bottom: 0.21cm } A:link { color: #000080; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } A:visited { color: #800000; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } --> This article features the starting period of the Afghanistan War historiography. Firstly, it shows that from the second half of the 1980s (the period of the publicity and freedom and speech politics) the Soviet science de-facto put the Afghan War on the list of censored humanitarian issues. Secondly, the mass media presented the information partially in focus of the official doctrine of internationalism. An emphasis is placed on the development of the matter at the end of Perestroika in the late 1980s - early 1990s. Based on the historiographical research the author finds the Soviet period of the Afghanistan War history since 1980 till 1991 “prescientific”.

Keywords: Afghanistan; Pakistan; the USSR; Perestroika; foreign policy; Soviet-Afghan relations; the Afghan War; historiography; afghanistics; Afghan people; international assistance; the concept of “invasion”; the introduction of troops; 40th Army; officers; soldiers; military historians; journalists; truth and lie.

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Fomenko Petr Petrovich

Political officers’ valour as an important condition for high morale of military personnel in the Afghan military campaign

On the threshold of the 30th anniversary of the Soviet troops’ withdrawal from Afghanistan the author addresses the topic of soldiers’ mental toughness throughout the combat operations. This study features a historical description of the 40th Army political officers’ heroic deeds in 1979-1989. This research is based on the e-documents of the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, scientific publications and memoirs.

Keywords: Afghanistan; Soviet troops; political officers; Hero of the Soviet Union; courage; courage; heroic deed; morale.

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HUMANITIES

Pages of history

Shein Igor Alexandrovich, Kovalenko Olga Yuryevna

“FOSTERING A TASTE FOR THE MILITARY CRAFT SPECIFICS BEGINS IN CHILDHOOD” 
(to the 75th anniversary of the first Suvorov Military Schools)

The first part of the article covers the history of military training since childhood. This study features different forms of preparatory military training, existing in different historic periods. Special attention is drawn to the question of child military training after 1917.

Keywords: military training; military education; training; children; pupil; cadet; cadet corps; preparatory schools; special military preparatory schools.

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Kiselev Alexander Sergeevich, Polovetsky Sergey Dmitrievich

Military gymnasia in the 1863-1882 military education system: history and current assessments

<!-- @page { size: 21cm 29.7cm; margin: 2cm } P { margin-bottom: 0.21cm } A:link { color: #000080; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } A:visited { color: #800000; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } --> This article deals with some essential aspects of development of a domestic military-pedagogical thought and military pedagogics of the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries. It reiterates a valuable contribution made by outstanding Russian teachers to the development and implementation of a new concept of military education under the military reform in the second half of the 19th century. It is shown that during this period, military gymnasia which came into being 155 years ago were of great importance to reinforce the military educational system. The authors conclude that despite a relatively short period, military gymnasia have made a significant contribution both to Russia’s educational system in general and the military education.

Keywords: army; military reform; military pedagogical thought; military education; military education; cadet corps; military schools; military gymnasiums; military schools; cadet schools.

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Glory road stages

Sakun Sergey Alexandrovich, Chertopolokh Alexander Alekseevich

Development of the Higher Military-Political School in the prewar period (1925-1941)

<!-- @page { size: 21cm 29.7cm; margin: 2cm } P { margin-bottom: 0.21cm } A:link { color: #000080; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } A:visited { color: #800000; so-language: zxx; text-decoration: underline } --> This paper continues a cycle of publications dedicated to the forthcoming 100th anniversary of the Military University. The main events and facts related to the Military-Political Academy development and its military commissars and political officers training activity in the prewar period as well as the tragic events of the political repressions period are represented in the article. It also covers specifics of organization, forms and methods of training and educational process in the Academy. This study exemplifies a major contribution made by the teaching staff of the Party and Political Work Department to develop theoretical and applied basics of the major subjects, and to sum up the Red Army’s combat experience. This research delivers biographical information on Frederick Blumenthal, the first chief of the Political Work and Development Department of the Military-Political Academy.

Keywords: Military-Political Academy; military commissars; political workers; party politics; university department; teachers; listeners; political education; training; curriculum; practice; “Tolmachevets” Magazine; Frederick Blumenthal.

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Security challenges

Larchenkov Vladimir Vladimirovich, Nikitin Stanislav Vladimirovich

“Highly likely” as a factor of information warfare (as exemplified in foreign media)

This paper focuses on the manipulating technologies in the mass media sphere, that are actively used by the west countries to affect aggressively the consciousness and subconsciousness of an individual and social communities. It describes the most typical examples of information attacks and some ways to influence the mass consciousness based on the primitive adulterated and corrupted facts as well as outright lying. At the same time, to protect Russia’s values, national interests and its citizens, and, in a broad sense, the whole world information system humanization, the methods of the Western mass media shouldn’t be copied automatically getting the “symmetric response”. Gaining an information warfare victory is still based on the main principles of the national journalism: objectiveness, truth, and relevance.

Keywords: mass media; masses; consciousness; manipulation; disinformation; lying; true; journalist; principles.

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Pautova Alla Victorovna 

Countering ISIS on the cyber battlefield (as exemplified in Foreign Affairs Magazine)

The author translated and analyzed a number of articles by foreign experts published in “Foreign Affairs” in 1915-1917, dealing with the problems of cyberdefence and cybersecurity in the modern conditions. This article unveils main directions of new information technologies used by terroristic groups, including the ISIS. To provide for the national security of states it offers and substantiates possible ways of deterrence and neutralization of cyberattacks.

Keywords: the Internet; social networks; new information technologies; cyberspace; terrorism; terrorist groups; ISIS; propaganda; cyber attack; cyber security; cyber defense.

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Vershilov Sergey Anatolievich

The challenge of Russia’s military security in terms of social philosophy reflected in contemporary scientific literature

This article dwells on the relevance of Russia’s military security research and covers challenging issues one can find in scientific literature (social-philosophical, political and military). The author intends to broaden perspectives of political figures and representatives of the analytical community about the importance of Russia’s military security in the globalization era. The author focuses on the corpus of the scientific texts (primarily new) topical for the main idea of the study. The analysis substantiates Russia’s authorities attention to the national security issues.

Keywords: Russia; state; geopolitics; military security; social philosophy; problem; scientific literature; political figures; subjects; methodology.

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THE SCIENCES OF WARFARE

Military chronicle

Paraskevov Valery Sergeevich, Saksonov Oleg Victorovich

The specifics of Red Army’s operational use of artillery while crossing the Dnieper River (to the 75th anniversary of the Dnieper Battle)

This article discusses characteristics and features of the combat use of units and formations of Soviet artillery in one of the largest battles of the great Patriotic war of 1941-1945 – the Battle of the Dnieper. Based on little-known materials and documents this study reveals main activities of commanders and personnel, artillery training and support of the advancing units of the Red Army while crossing the water obstacle. The authors portray heroism and skill of artillery men, as well as difficulties and shortcomings, surmounted by soldiers in the course of the fierce fighting.

Keywords: Red Army; offensive; battle; artillery; fire training; barrage; ammunition; the Dnieper River; forcing, transfer means.

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Military cadres

Mazanik Alexander Ivanovich, Panchenkov Victor Vladimirovich

Analysis of the nature and content of the recruitment process for Russia’s Ministry for Emergency Situations rescue military units

This study analyzes basic concepts in the field of staffing military organizations. The main difference between the terms of “selection” and “targeted selection” of personnel. The main stages of the recruitment procedure are proposed and analyzed. This paper considers main factors affecting recruitment and sets forth principles behind the selection of personnel, applying for a vacant position.

Keywords: Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia; military rescue unit; staffing; frames; selection; vacancies; substitution; candidates; professionally important qualities; efficiency.

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Foreign armies

Zakutnev Sergey Evgenyevich, Ibraymakunov Daniar Omurbekovich

Shaping medium-term strategies for defense budgetary expenditures of the Kyrgyz Republic

This article is devoted to the analysis of the practice of medium-term strategies formation of the Kyrgyz Republic budgetary defense expenditure developed by the State Committee on Defense Affairs. It considers the maintenance of development stages of medium-term strategy of the budgetary defense expenditure in the State Committee on Defense Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic. There is a need to introduce a mechanism for program budgeting of the Kyrgyz Republic defense expenditures aimed to increase target and cost efficiency of these expenses, the author concludes.

Keywords: the Kyrgyz Republic; military establishment; State Committee on Defense Affairs; budget; defense spending; program budgeting; medium-term forecast.

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Botaliev Daniar Usenovich, Vyacheslav Nikolaev Petrovich

Accounting and reporting on execution of the estimate of incomes and expenses of the Kyrgyz Republic State Committee on Defense Affairs

This article focuses on the organization of accounting and reporting in the implementation of measures for the execution of estimates of income and expenditure, in order to monitor the expenditure of budgetary allocations in the Armed Forces of the Kyrgyz Republic. It covers the budget process in the control bodies, military units and institutions of the General Staff of the Armed Forces and the State Committee for Defense of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces, and the National Guard of the Armed Forces of the Kyrgyz Republic. This study outlines the main methods to determine the budget allocations need for the estimates of revenues and expenditures of the State Committee for Defense Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic. It also covers the procedure for organizing and drawing up reports on the execution of estimates of income and expenses of the State Committee for Defense Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic.

Keywords: the Kyrgyz Republic; military establishment; budget; estimate; revenues; costs; medium-term forecast; budget allocations; accounting organization; reporting.

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Erdenaboyar Nyamdorzh, Gennady Chekmarev Fedorovich

The evolution of the legal consolidation of Mongolia’s defense policy foundations (1994-2015)

This article offers a comparative analysis of the initial and updated editions of Mongolia’s fundamental political and legal acts, governing the principles of the national security protection and the military development. The author studies reasons, causing the necessity of new editions. This study offers proposals for Mongolia’s military defense structure further development based upon the positive experience of the centralized leadership of the Russian military organization.

Keywords: Mongolia; defense policy; military doctrine; military establishment; military structure; defense; military reform.

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SCIENTIFIC LIFE

SCIENTIFIC FORUM

From World War I to Russia’s Civil War: lessons of history

On the 13th of November 2018 military-historical conference “FROM WORLD WAR I TO RUSSIA’S CIVIL WAR: LESSONS OF HISTORY” took place in the Central Armed Forces Museum. The scientific forum was hold within the course of the main events confined to the 100th anniversary of Russia’s Civil War. The arranger of the conference was the research and development center (of the fundamental military-historical problems) of the Military University of the Russian Federation, Defense Ministry.

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BOOKSHELF

Kaftan Vitaly Viсtorovich

In order to implement the guidance of the Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation general of the army S.K.Shoigu on the studying and implementation to the teaching and educational process of military universities the experience in application of the Russian Armed Forces in Syria monograph “FUNDAMENTALS AND LESSONS OF COMBAT EXPERIENCE OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN ARMY IN THE MIDDLE EAST”. The authors of the work are the representatives of the philosophy and religious studies department of the Military University A.I. Goriachev, M.M. Kurochko, P.V.Petriy and V.M.Shevtsov. The publication represents the analysis the participation of the Russian Army in the combat actions in the Middle East and explains the lessons of the combat experience in the context of its using for military personnel training in the universities.

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Russia’s military courts: history and nowadays

By the 100th anniversary of military courts the book “RUSSIA’S MILITARY COURTS” (Saint Petersburg, 2018, 368 pp.) came off the press. It was published under general editorship of the Vice-President of the Supreme Court – the chairman of the Judicial Chamber on Cases of the Military V.V.Jomchik. The authors made a successful attempt to tell about the history and the modern condition of the Russian military court system. The structure of the book harmoniously includes the chapters that let us to get a glimpse of the past, get acquainted with some resonant criminal cases, people working in the military court system that gave their knowledge and experience of law execution in arms and the judicial power authority strengthening.

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